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By Gabriel Reynolds

In 385 AH/AD 995 the Qadi 'Abd al-Jabbar, renowned for his Mu'tazili theological writings, wrote the affirmation of the Proofs of Prophecy, a piece that features a inventive polemic opposed to Christianity. 'Abd al-Jabbar reinterprets the Bible, Church historical past (especially the lives of Paul and Constantine) and Christian perform to argue that Christians replaced the Islamic faith of Jesus. the current paintings starts off with an exam of the arguable thought that this polemic was once borrowed from an unknown Judaeo-Christian team. the writer argues that 'Abd al-Jabbar's polemic is healthier understood as a reaction to his specific milieu and the on-going inter-religious debates of the medieval Islamic international. via interpreting the existence and regarded 'Abd al-Jabbar, besides the Islamic, Christian and Jewish antecedants to his polemic, the writer uncovers the intimate dating among sectarian controversy and the advance of an Islamic doctrine on Christianity.

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100/718), the grandson of 'Alì b. 31 M. 32 He thus demonstrates that alone, rational knowledge of values, man’s power as the source of moral evil and everlasting rewards and punishments. See Hourani, Reason and Tradition, 88–9. 28 Van Ess, “The Logical Structure of Islamic Theology,” Logic in Classical Islamic Culture (Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1970), 22–4. Van Ess argues (p. 24) that the very term kalàm is related to the Greek term diãlektow. See also van Ess, “Disputationspraxis der islamischen Theologie,” Revue des études islamiques 44 (1976), 23–60.

I shall not dispute their right to the name . . But is that enough for calling them liberal? That title we must certainly refuse them. ” Goldziher, Introduction to Islamic Theology and Law, 100–1. 48 Van Ess, TG, 3:31. G. 50 Another of Îiràr’s students, Abù l-Hudhayl al-'Allàf (d. ca. 226/841), an opponent of Óafß in theological matters, is likewise known for his disputational writings,51 which include a treatise against the East Syrian (Nestorian)52 Christian Ammàr al-Baßrì (d. 53 Meanwhile, Abù l-Hudhayl’s student (and nephew), NaΩΩàm,54 followed leur doctrine: murji"a, mushabbiha, mujabbira [sic, mujbira is better], Juifs, chrétiens, dualistes et mages, philosophes.

50 Works entitled Radd 'alà l-naßàrà are attributed to both of them. G. Monnot maintains that Îiràr was the first to write a specifically anti-Christian work. See his “Les doctrines des chrétiens dans le ‘Moghni’ de 'Abd al-Jabbàr,” Mélanges de l’Institut dominicain d’études orientales 16 (1983), 14. 51 H. ” “Abù l-Hudhayl al-'Allàf,” EI 2, 1:127. Van Ess points out that almost half of his works have a named opponent. TG, 3:220. See also Ibn al-Nadìm, 203ff. 52 The proper term is East Syrian, yet a difficulty arises from the fact that Arabic medieval texts—Muslim and Christian, East Syrian and non-East Syrian—do in fact use the term Nestorian.

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