By M. Hassan Kakar
This political and diplomatic heritage of overdue nineteenth-century Afghanistan and its significant ethnic teams lays naked how the floor was once laid for the emergence of Afghanistan as a geographical region in addition to for the implementation of schemes of modernization.
It describes how Amir Sher ‘Ali Khan and, extra absolutely, Amir ‘Abd al-Rahman Khan for the 1st time consolidated the authority of the significant govt on the price of the normal self reliant neighborhood magnates, and hence controlled to arrange a centralized monarchical kingdom and expand its direct rule thoughout Afghanistan.
They did so within the days of what has turn into referred to as the nice online game for the mastery of significant Asian states. even supposing the nice video game ended in the relief of Afghanistan in measurement, it additionally resulted in the transparent demarcation of its barriers in response to foreign agreements.
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Extra resources for A Political And Diplomatic History of Afghanistan, 1863-1901 (Brill's Inner Asian Library)
29 Kakar, Jang-e-Dowom-e-Afghan-Englis, 79. 23 the british afghan war 33 The instructions strengthened him still further in his resolve, since he then committed excesses in aﬀecting the killing of so many Afghans that news of this outraged the liberal press in India, as well as England. 30 The public in Britain was also outraged and this in part contributed to the defeat of the government in the general election that was held later, in April 1880. The executions were followed by the deportation to India of the amir, and his principal advisers, among them Sardar Yahya Khan (the amir’s father-in-law), Shah Mohammad Khan, Minister of External Aﬀairs; and Sardar Zakria Khan.
Other measures included the establishment of postal services, the building of the Sherpur (also Sher Abad) cantonment, and the setting up of a lithographic printing press in which Shams al-Nahar, the ﬁrst oﬃcial periodical in Afghanistan, was published. ”43 Previously, coins bore the names of rulers with anonymous titles such as sahib-e-zaman (lord of the age) or Sahib-e-mulk (lord of the land). 44 Additionally, for the ﬁrst Collected Works of Riyazi], Mashhad, 1904, 173. Ghobar, Afghanistan Dar Masire-Tarikh, 595.
Hanna, H. B. The Second Afghan War, 1878–79, 3 Vols. London, 1899–1910. , The Afghan War of 1879–80, London, 1881. 5 Tarzi, Reminiscences, 6. 6 Ibid. 7 Kakar, Jang-e-Dowom-e-Afghan-Englis, 41. ”8 He then accepted Lytton’s demands by concluding a treaty with Major Pierre Louis N. Cavagnari, an envoy of the British government of India, on May 26, 1879. The treaty was concluded in a British military camp in the Safed Sang village in Gandumak, in eastern Afghanistan, where the last troops of the British army retreating from Kabul had perished, in 1842.
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