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And Ghidaoui, M. (2004). Godunov type solutions for water hammer flows. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE 130(4), 341–348. 40 Advances in Control and Automation of Water Systems 6. , Golia, U. , and Greco, M. (1991). Some remarks on the momentum equation for fast transients. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Hydraulic Transients with Water Column Separation, IAHR. Valencia, Spain, pp. 201–209. 7. Kodura, A. and Weinerowska, K. (2005). Some aspects of physical and numerical modeling of water hammer in pipelines.

The hydraulic head represents the height to which a water column would rise in a piezometer. The plot of the hydraulic grade in a profile is often referred to as the hydraulic grade line or HGL. • Energy grade—the energy grade is the sum of the hydraulic grade and the velocity head (V2/2g). This is the height to which a column of water would rise in a pitot tube. The plot of the hydraulic grade in a profile is often referred to as the energy grade line or EGL. At a lake or reservoir, where the velocity is essentially zero, the EGL is equal to the HGL [2, 3].

But “in the second case” water-column separation did not happen. This was due to the air release from the leakage location. Research showed Max. Transient Pressure line was completely over the steady flow Pressure line. Max. 181(m). This pressure was too high for old piping and it must be considered as hazard for piping (Rasht city water-pipeline transmission line with surge tank and in leakage condition). 7) as two cases (Flow-Time transient curve) for Rasht city water-pipeline proved the surge tank effective role for Rasht city water-pipeline.

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